When a package is masked, it means you have to explicitly alter some configuration files to emerge it.
Usually packages are masked because they’re not considered stable enough for the standard Gentoo environment. This can be because they just need more testing, or they’re incompatible with another package, or there may be something seriously wrong with the package itself.
In this article we’ll see how we can access these packages.
Packages are usually masked for a very good reason.
Although the aim of these articles is to assist in building a stable server environment and we do show you what to do, we recommend that you don’t unmask packages in most situations.
Just keep in mind what we are trying to achieve when creating and building our Slice.
Remembering these recommendations, let’s see what to do if we really need to have a masked package installed…
Using a masked package
In our example
esearch is masked; the stable version is broken and only the testing version is available.
This is what happens when we try to emerge
$ emerge -vp esearch ... !!! All ebuilds that could satisfy "app-portage/esearch" have been masked. !!! One of the following masked packages is required to complete your request: - app-portage/esearch-0.7.1-r7 (masked by: ~amd64 keyword) - app-portage/esearch-0.7.1-r6 (masked by: ~amd64 keyword) - app-portage/esearch-0.7.1 (masked by: package.mask, ~amd64 keyword) /usr/portage/profiles/package.mask: # Paul Varner <firstname.lastname@example.org> (31 Dec 2008) # Masked due to being broken with portage 2.1 and 2.2. # Users can use either the unstable versions or switch to app-portage/eix
There are two types of masks in this output; keyword masks
(masked by: ~amd64 keyword),
and hard masks
(masked by: package.mask).
Keywords are defined in the ebuild file itself; in this case:
This mask is declaring that the version we want to install is flagged as ”testing only” on our amd64 architecture Slice.
We can enable the latest testing version on our system by adding the following line to
You can see more information on the syntax on this file by entering
man portage on the Linux command prompt:
Once inside the
man program, you can type
/package.keywords and hit enter to find the correct place in the file.
q key will exit the
package.keywords file has been updated, we should be able to emerge
esearch without any further problems.
As always, we’d test with
-vp first, then when we’re ready, run the real command:
sudo emerge esearch
The other type of mask shown comes from the
package.mask file, indicating that the
0.7.1 version is broken
or has a security risk and is not supported by the Gentoo team. In the emerge output, it looks like this:
... - app-portage/esearch-0.7.1 (masked by: package.mask, ~amd64 keyword) /usr/portage/profiles/package.mask: # Paul Varner <email@example.com> (31 Dec 2008) # Masked due to being broken with portage 2.1 and 2.2. # Users can use either the unstable versions or switch to app-portage/eix
In this particular case, there are two masks on this package; the hard mask represented by
masked by: package.mask,
plus a keyword mask shown as
The last 3 lines of the output are actually an excerpt from the
/usr/portage/profiles/package.mask file; they explain the reason that it is masked.
To override the hard mask we could add a line like this to
More info on this file can be found in the portage man page.
That’s the hard mask out of the way, but we’d still need to get around the keyword mask if we wanted to emerge this
version of the
To do this we could repeat the earlier process, only with a different version number, by adding a line like
the following to
Just be careful when installing these types of packages - they’re usually masked for a reason.